Fortune Magazine, with the Great Place to Work Institute and Hewitt Associates, probed 206 of more than 1,000 large and midsized firms, and polled some 27,000 of their employees, to identify the very best places to work and how they got that way. Factors involved in the selection include compensation, industrial relations and business practices. The list also considers the level of trust, pride, and camaraderie that employees share with management and their peers, and what practices the company is pursuing to sustain those things.
A composite of the typical 100 Best company is a drawn from the medians of several categories. It is 36 years old and has a U.S. work force of 5,520. It had 1997 revenues of $1.3 billion and a CEO with an eight-year tenure. Its work force is 44% female, 78.2% Caucasian. A third of employees have been on the job less than two years, with 6% more than 15 years. Last year it received 19,000 job applications, adding 724 jobs.
|1||SYNOVUS FINANCIAL||Columbus, Ga||51||COMPUWARE||Farmington Hills, Mich.|
|2||TDINDUSTRIES||Dallas||52||K2||Vashon Island, Wash.|
|3||SAS INSTITUTE||Cary, N.C.||53||AMGEN||Thousand Oaks, Calif.|
|4||SOUTHWEST AIRLINES||Dallas||54||BUREAU OF NATL. AFFAIRS||Washington, D.C.|
|6||PEOPLESOFT||Pleasanton, Calif.||56||GENENTECH||South San Francisco|
|7||GOLDMAN SACHS||New York||57||ERIE INSURANCE||Erie, Pa.|
|8||DELOITTE & TOUCHE||Wilton, Conn.||58||ENTERPRISE RENT-A-CAR||St. Louis|
|9||MBNA||Wilmington, Del.||59||COMPUTER ASSOCIATES||Islandia, N.Y.|
|10||HEWLETT-PACKARD||Palo Alto||60||BE&K||Birmingham, Ala.|
|11||EDWARD JONES||St. Louis||61||LENSCRAFTERS||Cincinnati|
|12||FINOVA GROUP||Phoenix||62||LUCENT TECHNOLOGIES||Murray Hill, N.J.|
|13||AFLAC||Columbus, Ga.||63||SUN MICROSYSTEMS||Palo Alto|
|14||FIRST TENNESSEE BANK||Memphis||64||JOHNSON & JOHNSON||New Brunswick, N.J.|
|15||FRANK RUSSELL||Tacoma||65||USAA||San Antonio|
|16||WRQ||Seattle||66||WAL-MART STORES||Bentonville, Ark.|
|18||A.G. EDWARDS||St. Louis||68||INGRAM MICRO||Santa Ana, Calif.|
|19||ACXIOM||Conway, Ark.||69||BAPTIST HEALTH SYSTEMS||Coral Gables, Fla.|
|20||W.L. GORE & ASSOCIATES||Newark, Del.||70||FOUR SEASONS HOTELS||Toronto|
|21||KINGSTON TECHNOLOGY||Fountain Valley, Calif.||71||MERRILL LYNCH||New York|
|22||J.M. SMUCKER||Orrville, Ohio||72||ALAGASCO||Birmingham, Ala.|
|23||JM FAMILY ENTERPRISES||Deerfield Beach, Fla.||73||ENRON||Houston|
|24||CISCO SYSTEMS||San Jose||74||ARROW ELECTRONICS||Melville, N.Y.|
|25||UNUM||Oortland, Me.||75||ERNST & YOUNG||New York|
|26||TIMBERLAND||Stratham, N.H.||76||LANDS' END||Dodgeville, Wis.|
|28||MERCK||Whitehouse Station, N.J.||78||PUBLIX SUPER MARKETS||Lakeland, Fla.|
|29||PLANTE & MORAN||Southfield, Mich.||79||FEDEX||Memphis|
|30||GREAT PLAINS||Fargo, N.D.||80||ALLIED SIGNAL||Morristown, N.J.|
|32||LUCAS DIGITAL||San Rafael, Calif.||82||QUANTUM||Milpitas, Calif.|
|33||GRANITE ROCK||Watsonville, Calif.||83||W.W. GRAINGER||Lincolnshire, Ill.|
|34||ODETICS||Anaheim, Calif.||84||S.C. JOHNSON||Racine, Wis.|
|35||AUTODESK||San Rafael, Calif.||85||CERNER||Kansas City, Mo.|
|36||CDW||Vernon Hills, Ill.||86||ALCON LABORATORIES||Fort Worth|
|37||VALASSIS COMMUN.||Livonia, Mich.||87||HERMAN MILLER||Zeeland, Mich.|
|38||REI||Kent, Wash.||88||UNION PACIFIC RESOURCES||Fort Worth|
|39||FENWICK & WEST||Palo Alto||89||WORTHINGTON INDUSTRIES||Columbus, Ohio|
|40||CONTINENTAL AIRLINES||Houston||90||HONDA OF AMERICA MFG.||Marysville, Ohio|
|41||CAPITAL ONE||Falls Church, Va.||91||KINKO'S||Ventura, Calif.|
|42||OHIO NATL. FINAN. SVCS.||Cincinnati||92||APPLIED MATERIALS||Santa Clara, Calif.|
|43||WEGMANS||Rochester, N.Y.||93||QUAD/GRAPHICS||Pewaukee, Wis.|
|44||MARRIOTT INTERNATIONAL||Washington, D.C.||94||3M||Maplewood, Minn.|
|45||J.D. EDWARDS||Denver||95||3COM||Santa Clara, Calif.|
|47||QUALCOMM||San Diego||97||BALDOR ELECTRIC||Fort Smith, Ark.|
|48||WHOLE FOODS MARKET||Austin, Texas||98||NORDSTROM||Seattle|
|49||INTEL||Santa Clara, Calif.||99||CORNING||Corning, N.Y.|
|50||PATAGONIA||Ventura, Calif.||100||L.L. BEAN||Freeport, Me.|
Source: Fortune Magazine, January 1999
More than 70 percent of all American women between the ages of 20 and 54 now work outside the home. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 guarantees family leave for employees under certain circumstances. The FMLA requires private sector employers of 50 or more employees and public agencies to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave to "eligible" employees for certain family and medical reasons. Employees are "eligible" if they have worked for a covered employer for at least one year, and for 1,250 hours over the previous 12 months, and if there are at least 50 employees with 75 miles. Similar provisions may apply to federal and congressional employees.
For more information on the new federal regulations, contact the nearest office of the Wage and Hour Division, listed in most telephone directories under U.S. Government, Department of Labor, Employment Standards Administration. The following state regulations augment and supersede the federal requirements for employers:
Alaska's family leave law provides state and other public employees with up to 18 weeks of leave every 24 months to care for the serious health condition of a child, spouse, or parent, or for the worker's own serious health condition. Additionally, the law provides 18 weeks of leave per year to care for a newborn or newly adopted child. It covers the state and political subdivisions of the state with at least 21 employees. Workers must work at least 35 hours per week for six consecutive months or 17.5 hours per week for 12 consecutive months to be eligible.
California's family leave law provides up to 16 weeks of leave over two years for birth or adoption, or for the serious health condition of a child, spouse, or parent. It applies to employers of 50 or more; employees must be employed for 12 months to be eligible.
Colorado provides employees guarantees of a "reasonable period" of leave for pregnancy, child-birth, and adoption.
Connecticut provides 16 weeks of family and medical leave every two years for employers of 75 or more.
Employees must be employed for 1,000 hours in the 12-month period preceding the first day of leave to be eligible. Connecticut also provides state employees with a total of 24 weeks over two years for family or medical leave.
Connecticut's pregnancy disability law provides job-guaranteed leave for the period that a worker is physically disabled due to pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical conditions. The law covers employers with three or more employees; certain family businesses are exempted.
Delaware provides state employees who have had one year of continuous employment with six weeks of family leave for adoption or birth of a child.
The District of Columbia's family and medical leave law provides up to 16 weeks of unpaid leave every two years to care for a newborn or newly adopted child or for a seriously ill family member. "Family member" is defined broadly to include a person related by blood, legal custody, or marriage, or a person with whom an employee shares a residence in the context of a committed relationship. Sixteen weeks of medical leave every two years is separately available for the employers of 50 or more for the first three years after enactment; covers employers of 50 or more for the first three years after enactment; covers employers of 20 or more thereafter. Employees must have worked for the employer for at least 1,000 hours during the last 12 months to be eligible.
Florida law grants up to six months of family leave per year to state employees for birth or adoption or for the serious illness of a worker's spouse, child, or parent.
Georgia provides up to 12 weeks of family and medical leave per year for state employees. Employees must be employed for at least 12 months and 1,040 hours to be eligible.
For state employees, and for private sector employers of 100 or more, Hawaii law provides employees four weeks of family leave for birth, adoption, or the serious health conditions of a child, spouse, or parent.
Hawaii also provides pregnancy disability leave to all employees for the period that a worker is physically disabled by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.
Illinois provides certain permanent, full-time state employees with family leave of up to one year for "bona fide family responsibilities" (including birth or adoption, or care of a seriously ill family member).
Iowa provides up to eight weeks' pregnancy disability leave. Employers with four or more employees are covered.
Kansas provides pregnancy disability leave for the period that a worker is physically disabled by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. Employers with four or more employees are covered.
Kentucky provides all employees with six weeks' leave for adopting a child under age seven.
Louisiana provides up to four months of leave to employees who are temporarily disabled because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. Only six weeks of disability leave is generally available for normal pregnancy or childbirth. Employers with 26 or more employees are covered.
Maine provides ten weeks of family and medical leave over a two-year period. Employers with 25 or more employees are covered. Employees must work for the same employer for 12 consecutive months to be eligible.
Maryland provides 12 weeks of leave for birth, adoption, or family illness for state employees.
Female employees in Massachusetts are eligible for eight weeks of leave for birth or adoption of a child under age three. Employees are eligible after completing employer's initial probationary period or three consecutive months as a full-time employee. Covers employers of six or more employees.
Minnesota employers with 21 or more employees must provide their employees with six weeks of leave for the birth or adoption of a child. Employees must work 12 months at 20 or more hours per week to be eligible.
Missouri provides equal leave for childbirth and adoption for state employees.
Montana provides pregnancy disability leave for workers when temporarily disabled by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. Covers employers with one or more employees.
New Hampshire provides pregnancy disability leave for workers when temporarily disabled by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. Covers employers of six or more.
New Jersey provides 12 weeks of leave over a 24-month period for birth, adoption, or the serious health condition of a child, parent, or spouse. Employers of 50 or more are covered. Employee must have been employed at least 1,000 hours in the 12 months before the leave to be eligible.
New York provides equal leave for childbirth and adoption.
North Carolina provides all state employees with pregnancy disability leave when temporarily disabled by pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.
North Dakota provides state employees (with one-year minimum employment at an average of 20 hours per week) our months of leave per year for birth, adoption, or serious health condition of spouse, child, or parent.
Oklahoma provides state employees with 12 weeks of family leave per year for birth or adoption, or for the care of a critically ill child or dependent adult. Employees must work six months to be eligible.
Oregon's family leave law provides employees with 12 weeks of leave every two years for the illness of a child requiring "home care," or to care for a child, spouse, or parent suffering from "any mental or physical condition requiring constant care." Covers employers with 50 or more employees.
Oregon's parental leave law provides 12 weeks of leave for the birth of a child or for adopting a child up to age 12. This law covers employers of 25 or more employees; employees are eligible after 90 days of employment. Employees hired on a seasonal or temporary basis are not covered. Oregon provides pregnancy disability leave for the period of physical disability if such leave can be reasonably accommodated.
Rhode Island provides up to 13 weeks of family medical leave over a two year period. Covers private employers with 50 or more employees; city, town, or municipal agencies with 30 or more employees; and all state agencies. Employee must be employed for an average of 30 or more hours per week by same employer for 12 consecutive months to be eligible.
Tennessee provides up to four months of leave for pregnancy disability and childbirth. Covers employees who have worked full-time for 12 consecutive months at companies with 100 or more employees.
Texas provides state employees six weeks' leave for childbirth or adoption.
Vermont provides 12 weeks of family and medical leave per year. Employers of ten or more must provide leave to care for a newborn or newly adopted child; employers of 15 or more must also provide leave to care for the serious health conditions of a child, spouse, or parent, or for the worker's own serious health condition. Employees must work for at least one year for an average of 30 hours per week to be eligible.
Virginia provides state employees with six weeks of parental leave per year for birth or adoption.
Washington's parental leave law provides 12 weeks of leave over a two year period for the birth, adoption, or serious illness of a child. Employees must be employed 52 weeks at 35 or more hours per week to be eligible. Covers employers of 100 or more employees.
Effective October 28, 1973, Washington also provides pregnancy disability leave for the period of physical disability. Covers employees of eight or more.
West Virginia provides state and school employees with 12 weeks of leave per year for the birth or adoption of a child, or for the serious health condition of a spouse, child, or parent. Employees must have 12 consecutive weeks of employment to be eligible.
Wisconsin provides six weeks of leave for birth or adoption of a child; two weeks of leave for serious health condition of a child, spouse, or parent; and two weeks of medical leave for a worker's own serious health condition (including pregnancy disability). No more than ten weeks may be taken in a 12-month period for any combination of these reasons. Law covers employers with 50 or more employees; an employee must be employed for 52 consecutive weeks and have worked 1,000 hours to be eligible.
The National Labor Relations Board is an independent federal agency created in 1935 by Congress to administer the National Labor Relations Act, the basic law governing relations between labor unions and the employers whose operations influence interstate commerce.
The statute guarantees the right of employees to organize and to bargain collectively with their employers or to refrain from all such activity. Generally applying to all employers involved in interstate commerce -- other than airlines, railroads, agriculture, and government -- the Act carries out the national labor policy of assuring free choice and encouraging collective bargaining for maintaining industrial peace.
Through the years, Congress has amended the Act, and the Board and courts have developed a body of law drawn from the statute. This section is intended to give a brief explanation of the Act to employees, employers, unions, and the public.
In its statutory assignment, the NLRB has two principal functions: (1) to find out, through secret ballot elections, the free democratic choice by employees about whether or not they wish to be represented by a union in dealing with their employers and, if so, by which union; (2) to prevent and remedy unlawful acts, called unfair labor practices, by either employers or unions.
The Act's election provisions provide the authority for conducting representation elections, which determine the views of the employees regarding representation by a labor union. It's unfair labor practice provisions place certain restrictions on actions of both employers and labor organizations in their relations with employees, and with each other.
The agency does not act on its own initiative in either function. It processes only those charges of unfair labor practices and petitions for employee elections which are filed with the NLRB in one of its Regional, Subregional, or Resident Offices.
The staff in each office is available to help the public with inquiries concerning the Act and to provide appropriate forms and other technical assistance to those who wish to file charges or petitions.
The Act prohibits both employers and unions from violating these employee rights. As an example, an employer may not discriminate against employees regarding hiring, discharge, or working conditions because of their union activities. A union may not engage in acts of violence against employees who refrain from union activity. These example s are for illustration only.
For further information about employer and union unfair labor practices, refer to The National Labor Relations Board and You: Unfair Labor Practices, available from your nearest NLRB office. A related publication, The National Labor Relations Board and You: Representation Cases, describes the election process in more detail.
The agency has two separate components. The Board itself has five members and primarily acts as a quasi-judicial body in deciding cases based on formal records in administrative proceedings. Board members are appointed by the President to five-year terms, with Senate consent, the term of one member expiring each year. The general counsel, appointed by the President to a four-year term with Senate consent, is independent of the Board and is responsible for the investigation and prosecution of unfair labor practice cases and for the general supervision of the NLRB field offices in the processing of unfair labor practice and representation cases.
Each Regional Office is run by a Regional Director who is responsible for making the initial determination in unfair labor practice and representation cases arising within the geographical area served by the Region (including any Resident or Subregional Offices within the Region).
In a typical representation election case, a union employer or individual files a petition with the field office requesting that an election be held among a particular group of employees (called a "bargaining unit") to decide whether the group wishes to be represented, or wishes to continue to be represented, by a union. A petition filed by a union or an individual must be supported by showing that at least 30 percent of affected employees want an election.
If the Region's investigation reveals that the petition should be processed, attempts are made to secure the agreement of the parties on the issues involved, including the appropriate unit and the time and place of the election. Over 80 percent of meritorious election petitions result in such agreements. If an agreement cannot be reached, the Region conducts a hearing. Based upon the record of the hearing, the Regional Director issues a decision disposing of the issues. The Regional Director's decision may be appealed to the Board.
When an unfair labor practice charge is filed, the appropriate field office investigates to decide whether there is reasonable cause to believe the Act has been violated. If the Regional Director decides that the charge lacks merit, it will be dismissed, unless the charging party decides to withdraw the charge. A dismissal may be appealed to the General Counsel's office in Washington, D.C.
If the Regional Director finds reasonable cause to believe a violation the law has been committed, the Region seeks a voluntary settlement to remedy the alleged violations. If these settlement efforts fail, a formal complaint is issued, and the case goes to a hearing before an NLRB administrative law judge.
The judge issues a written decision which may be appealed to the Board for a final Agency determination That final determination is subject to review in the federal courts. More than 90 percent of the unfair labor practice cases filed with the NLRB are disposed of in an average of 45 days without the necessity of formal litigation before the Board. Only about 4 percent of the cases go on to Board decision.
Since its establishment, the NLRB has processed more than 90O,000 unfair labor practice charges and conducted in excess of 36O,000 secret ballot elections. The Agency handles approximately 4O,000 cases each year, including more than 7,000 representation petitions.
For further information, to find the NLRB field office nearest to you, or to receive copies of the publications referred to here, contact the NLRB headquarters at: The National Labor Relations Board Office of Information 1099 14th St., NW, Room 9400 Washington, D.C. 20570. Phone: (202) 273- 1991.
Other recommended information sources include:
The National Labor Relations Board and You: Unfair Labor Practices National Labor Relations Board, free (202) 273-1991
Provides information about employer and union unfair labor practices.
The National Labor Relations Board and You: Representation Cases National Labor Relations Board, free (202) 273-1000
Describes the union election process in detail.
A Guide to Basic Law and Procedures Under the National Labor Relations Act U.S. Government Printing Office (202) 512-1800
Physical examinations can be used to screen out applicants when the results show that job performance would be degraded. For example, jobs that require a great deal of physical force may require job applicants to receive back X-rays, while desk jobs may not.
Drug testing for employees and job applicants has increased 250 percent since 1987. Perhaps because of increased testing and related educational programs, drug use among workers and job seekers has declined in recent years.
A handful of states presently outlaw drug testing for private sector businesses. Many government workers, on the other hand, must submit to random or periodic drug testing as mandated by the Federal Workplace Drug Testing Regulations.
Just about all drug testing is done by urinalysis which, when performed under the guidelines established by the Federal Workplace Drug Testing Regulations, offers a 99.9 percent accuracy rate.
With the passage of the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988, employers are restricting their use of polygraph or lie detector tests. The law virtually outlaws the use of lie detectors for employment, and covers all private employers in interstate commerce. Supporters of the law claim that the tests are accurate only two-thirds of the time and are far more likely to be inaccurate for honest employees. The new law restricts pre employment screening and random use of the device.
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act allows polygraph tests to be used with jobs in security or that involve handling drugs, or in investigating a theft or other suspected crime. Before an employee can be required to take such a test as part of an investigation of an employment-related crime, however, the employee must be given a written notice saying that he or she is a suspect.
Employees with disabilities, including AIDS and HIV infection, are protected by law from discrimination in employment. Often, HIV testing of new or present employees for employment is prohibited by human rights laws. In the very few areas of employment where testing may be allowed, an employee may never be singled out for testing; tests must be required of all employees or none.
Because of the many sensitive legal issues involving privacy and discrimination, it is advised that employers develop a comprehensive "AIDS in the Workplace" policy, and should not require HIV screening as part of pre-employment or general workplace physical examination.
More information on drug testing and program management can be obtained by getting in touch with these firms:
Drug Intervention Services of America 11200 Westheimer, Suite 630 Houston, Texas 77042 (713) 972-3472 National MRO P.O. Box 261426 Lakewood, CO 80226 (303) 238-2000 Substance Abuse Management 2 Plaza E. 330 E. Kilbourn Avenue, Suite 1075 Milwaukee, WI 53202 (414) 273-7264 University Services Arsenal Business Center 5301 Tacony Street, Building 4 Philadelphia, PA 19137 (215) 743-4200 Weber Consultants Unlimited 2331-D2 E. Avenue S., Suite 198 Palmdale, CA 93550 (805) 294-5033
Robert Levering and Milton Moskowitz did a study of companies in America with the aim of looking at them through the eyes of their employees. So they ranked them according to a variety of factors, including pay, benefits, job security, chances of advancement, and worker pride. The following is a list of 100 companies that they felt were the best to work for according to these criteria.
|3M||St. Paul, MN|
|Advanced Micro Devices||Sunnyvale, CA|
|Anheuser-Busch||St. Louis, MO|
|Apogee Enterprises||Minneapolis, MN|
|Avis||Garden City, NY|
|Baptist Hospital of Miami||Miami, FL|
|Ben & Jerry's Homemade||Waterbury, VT|
|Beth Israel Hospital Boston||Boston, MA|
|Leo Burnett||Chicago, IL|
|Chaparral Steel||Midlothian, TX|
|Compaq Computer||Houston, TX|
|Cooper Tire||Findlay, OH|
|Cray Research||Eagan, MN|
|Cummins Engine||Columbus, OH|
|Dayton Hudson||Minneapolis, MN|
|John Deere||Moline, IL|
|Delta Air Lines||Atlanta, GA|
|Du Pont||Wilmington, DE|
|A.G. Edwards||St. Louis, MO|
|Erie Insurance||Erie, PA|
|Federal Express||Memphis, TN|
|First Federal Bank of California||Santa Monica, CA|
|H.B. Fuller||St. Paul, MN|
|General Mills||Minneapolis, MN|
|Goldman, Sachs||New York, NY|
|W.L. Gore & Associates||Newark, DE|
|Great Plains Software||Fargo, ND|
|Hallmark Cards||Kansas City, MO|
|Hershey Foods||Hershey, PA|
|Hewitt Associates||Lincolnshire, IL|
|Hewlett-Packard||Palo Alto, CA|
|Honda of America Manufacturing||Marysville, OH|
|Inland Steel||Chicago, IL|
|Intel||Santa Clara, CA|
|Johnson & Johnson||New Brunswick, NJ|
|SC Johnson Wax||Racine, WI|
|Kellogg||Battle Creek, MI|
|Lands' End||Dodgeville, WI|
|Lincoln Electric||Cleveland, OH|
|Los Angeles Dodgers||Los Angeles, CA|
|Lowe's||North Wilkesboro, NC|
|Lyondell Petrochemical||Houston, TX|
|Marquette Electronics||Milwaukee, WI|
|Mary Kay Cosmetics||Dallas, TX|
|McCormick||Hunt Valley, MD|
|Merck||Whitehouse Sta., NJ|
|Methodist Hospital||Houston, TX|
|Herman Miller||Zeeland, MI|
|Moog||E. Aurora, NY|
|J.P. Morgan||New York, NY|
|Morrison & Foerster||San Francisco, CA|
|Nissan Motor Manufacturing||Smyrna, TN|
|Northwestern Mutual Life||Milwaukee, WI|
|J.C. Penney||Plano, TX|
|Pitney Bowes||Stamford, CT|
|Preston Trucking||Preston, MD|
|Procter & Gamble||Cincinnati, OH|
|Publix Super Markets||Lakeland, FL|
|Reader's Digest||Pleasantville, NY|
|SAS Institute||Cary, NC|
|J.M. Smucker||Orrville, OH|
|Southwest Airlines||Dallas, TX|
|Springfield ReManufacturing||Springfield, MO|
|Springs||Fort Mill, SC|
|Steelcase||Grand Rapids MI|
|Syntex||Palo Alto, CA|
|USAA||San Antonio, TX|
|US West||Englewood, CO|
|Valassis Communications||Livonia, MI|
|Viking Freight System||San Jose, CA|
|Worthington Industries||Columbus, OH|
Source: Robert Levering and Milton Moskowitz, The 100 Best Companies to Work For in America , Doubleday, 1993