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   Political Structure
 Official Names Bosnia and Hercegovina (BiH) has legal existence within the boundaries of the former Yugoslav republic of the same name. It comprises two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina, set up by the Washington Treaty of March 18 1994, and the Republika Srpska (RS).
 Form of State

BiH has the following responsibilities under the Basic Principles agreed in Geneva and New York in September 1995, and confirmed at Dayton, US, on November 21:

  • the establishment of a Constitutional Court
  • a Commission for Displaced Persons
  • a Human Rights Commission
  • a central bank
  • public corporations to manage and operate transport and telecommunications
  • a Commission to Preserve National Monuments
  • a system of arbitration between the two entities

Foreign trade is also supposed to be managed by the government of BiH.

Legislatures The Federation and the RS have their own assemblies. BiH has a two-chamber parliament: the House of Representatives and the House of Peoples, two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third from the RS. A valid majority requires the support of at least one-third of the members representing each entity.
National Elections September 12th-13th 1998; next parliamentary elections due by September 2000. Next presidential election due by September 2002.
Head of State BiH has a collective presidency of three, elected on September 12th-13th 1998. Alija Izetbegovic, Zivko Radisic and Ante Jelavic.
National Government There is a small Council of Ministers with two co-chairman (prime ministers) and a vice-chairman, chosen by the presidency on December 18th 1996. Three departmental ministers, each with two deputies, were elected by parliament on January 3rd 1997. The entities have their own governments.
Main Political Parties Croatian Democratic Union of BiH (Bosnian HDZ); New Croatian Initiative (NHI); Party of Democratic Action (SDA); Party for BiH (SZBiH); Social Democratic Party (SDP); Social Democrats of BiH; Serbian Democratic Party (SDS); Serbian People's Alliance (SNS); Serbian Radical Party of the Republika Srpska (SRSRS); Socialist Party of the Republika Srpska (SPRS)
International Involvement The Dayton peace agreement called for the appointment of a high representative, a senior foreign diplomat charged with monitoring implementation of the agreement and co-ordinating the activities of international organisations operating in BiH. The high representative is advised by the Peace Implementation Council (PIC) which includes all the signatories to the Dayton agreement. In December 1997 the PIC strengthened the role of the high representative to allow him to impose decisions in cases of disagreement and to punish officials who obstruct the implementation of the Dayton agreement.
Governing Officials Haris Silajdzic; Boro Bosic, Co-chairmen
Neven Tomic, Vice-chairman
Spasoje Albijanic, Civil affairs & communications
Mirsad Kurtovic, Economic relations & foreign trade
Jadranko Prlic, Foreign affairs
Central Bank Governor Peter Nicholl
High Representative Carlos Westendorp


Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 1999